It is commonly accepted that in BC, at the time of the unification, Ch’in introduced the Pan pronounced “Ban” Liang coinage, discontinuing knife and spade coinage. This is by no means certain and we find it difficult to accept, believing the coinage of this period is more complex and knife and spade coinage was phased out gradually. This series is difficult to classify, with specimens occurring at weights from 2 to 18 grams but rarely over 12 grams , and diameters from 14 to over 34 mm. Having examined a number of Pan Liang hoards, we found most specimens within a single hoard will be of uniform diameter but the weight can vary significantly. This had lead us to believe the coins diameter is the important factor in determining the period or issue. Unfortunately, not enough dateable hoard or archeological evidence currently exists to work out the exact classification of the Pan Liang series, but the Records of Han provide a clue, stating that heavy Pan Liang were cast until about BC. We believe this refers to the larger specimens over 30 mm which range between 6 and 12 grams but averaging 7 to 8 grams or 15 shu. This could make the earliest issues contemporaries of the Ming-Huo Round Coin Series , but since they were cast to the heavy standard down to BC, it may not be possible to differentiate between the Zhou, Ch’in and early Han dynasty issues.
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This section is courtesy of Ms. Rennon The following walks are designed to guide you around the four main areas of Bucharest, pointing out several unique sights. Stray from the routes as you wish, as you’re sure to find other interesting places along the way that are not mentioned here. Allow approximately three hours for each walk.
Walk 1 North of Center This beautiful walk takes you through the quiet area n orth of the city center.
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Brown has faced political accusations in previous runs for elected office dating back to that have tied her to the efforts of the Sandanistas in Nicaragua in the s and early s. The congressional candidate said the attacks have conflated her work as an educator in the country in with political activism in Eastern Washington in the s, which included a demonstration on the federal courthouse steps against congressional aid to rebel fighters. She followed that visit with a demonstration on the federal courthouse steps in Spokane in Public opinion polling at the time showed that the U.
Several Republicans and Democrats defected from their parties in the vote on aid to the Contras in Within months of the approval, an investigation revealed that the Reagan administration had been funneling the proceeds from illegal weapon sales to Iran to help arm the Contras against the Sandanistas. The sale of weapons to the Iranian government sidestepped a legal embargo that had been established after the Iranians took 52 American hostages following their own revolution in Ads paid for by Rep.
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Women in the Year C. In Christian Europe, it was hardly a golden age. It was a violent time when nobles and their knights were preoccupied with holding onto their land, and peasants suffered periodic invasions of armies bent on destruction and pillage. All classes lived uncomfortably in rude, unsanitary houses. All faced recurrent famine, often caused by poorly tilled lands, and disease, often caused by polluted water, tainted foods and unsanitary living.
Excavations throw light on capital of Vakataka kingdom – Archaeologists said the village, located around kms from Mumbai, was the site of continuous settled human population from the late-iron age till today “The site was populated even before the Vakataka era to the late iron age dating back to 1, to century BC,” explained.
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A thriving culture of Paleo-Americans, known as the Clovis people, vanished seemingly overnight. Gone, too, were most of the largest animals: In just the last few years, there has arisen a controversial scientific hypothesis to explain this chain of events, and it involves an extraterrestrial calamity: Now the proponents of this apocalyptic scenario say they have found a new line of evidence: They say they have found these tiny structures across North America in sediments from 12, years ago, and they argue that the diamonds had to have been formed by a high-temperature, high-pressure event, such as a cometary impact.
According to the theory – which has its critics – as the comet broke apart, it rained fire over the entire continent, igniting the plains and forests and creating choking clouds of smoke. Heat from the explosions and fires melted substantial portions of the Laurentide glacier in Canada, sending waves of water down the Mississippi and into the Gulf of Mexico. That caused changes in Atlantic Ocean currents, which started a 1, year ice age known as the Younger Dryas.
Battered by fire and ice, as many as 35 species of mammals including American camels, mammoths, mastodons, the short-faced bear, the giant beaver, the dire wolf and the American lion either immediately vanished or were so depleted in number that humans hunted them to extinction. The humans themselves, a Paleo-Indian grouping known as the Clovis culture for the distinctive spear points they employed, suffered a major population drop, disappearing in many areas for hundreds of years.
Society National Capital Cities In Europe London, Paris, and Rome, and all national capital cities in Europe for that matter, are historical, cultural, financial, and political powerhouses for their respective nations. The capital cities of Europe. This Mediterranean colonization became the central point of development for Europe. From Greece , the ideas of democracy, rationalism, philosophy, and humanism have emerged, becoming the building blocks of future societies around the world.
Luzira is a suburb of Kampala, the capital of Uganda. Prehistoric artifacts dating back to around AD, have been uncovered at the site where the maximum security prison is located. This includes the famous Luzira Head, which is currently housed in the British Museum.
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman beylik’s first capital was located in Bursa in Edirne which was conquered in  was the next capital city. After largely expanding to Europe and Anatolia, in , the Ottomans nearly completed the conquest of the Byzantine Empire by capturing its capital, Constantinople during the reign of Mehmed II. Constantinople was made the capital city of the Empire following Edirne.
The sultan of the golden age, Suleiman the Magnificent. The Ottoman Empire’s power and prestige peaked in the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. The empire was often at odds with the Holy Roman Empire in its steady advance towards Central Europe through the Balkans and the southern part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. John , for control of the Mediterranean.
In the Indian Ocean , the Ottoman navy frequently confronted Portuguese fleets in order to defend its traditional monopoly over the maritime trade routes between East Asia and Western Europe ; these routes faced new competition with the Portuguese discovery of the Cape of Good Hope in The Treaty of Karlowitz in marked the beginning of Ottoman territorial retreat; some territories were lost by the treaty: Austria received all of Hungary and Transylvania except the Banat; Venice obtained most of Dalmatia along with the Morea the Peloponnesus peninsula in southern Greece ; Poland recovered Podolia.
Anatolia remained multi-ethnic until the early 20th century see Rise of Nationalism under the Ottoman Empire. Faced with territorial losses on all sides the Ottoman Empire under the rule of the Three Pashas forged an alliance with Germany who supported it with troops and equipment. During the war, major atrocities were committed such as Genocide, mass murder and death marches intentionally denying food and water to the deportees by the Ottoman government against the Armenians , Assyrians and Pontic Greeks causing millions of deaths and resulting in the Armenian Genocide of
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See Article History Alternative Titles: Long an object of veneration and conflict, the holy city of Jerusalem has been governed, both as a provincial town and a national capital, by an extended series of dynasties and states. In the early 20th century the city, along with all of historic Palestine , became the focus of the competing national aspirations of Zionists and Palestinian Arabs.
Layers of rock build one atop another, xenon chronometer is an isochron technique. The oldest dates that can be reliably measured by this process date to around 50 — the reliability of the thermoluminescence dating is used to date can be improved by lengthening the testing time.
He founds the Merovingian dynasty and passes his kingdom on to his sons, who begin fighting one another for additional territory. He creates the Latin church, which serves to counteract the subordination of the Roman popes to Eastern emperors. As the fourth great “church father,” St. His concepts of purgatory and penance widen the gulf between the Eastern and Western Churches. He reigns until his death in For the sake of convenience, the rule of Heraclius generally marks the beginning of Byzantine history, though it can be argued that Byzantine civilization begins with Diocletian, Constantine or Justinian.
The Jerusalem cross is retrieved from the Persians, who stole the relic in Heraclius reigns until his death in He is succeeded by his son, Charles Martel, who forms an alliance with the Church which helps the Merovingian Dynasty and Christianity to expand into Germany. Pepin the Short succeeds his father, Charles Martel, and strengthens the alliance between Benedictine missionaries and Frankish expansion. Byzantine Emperor Leo the Isaurian, who reigns until , counters the Arab attempt with “Greek Fire” a liquid mixture of sulfur, naphtha and quicklime which is released from bronze tubes, situated on ships and on the walls of Constantinople and great military strength.
Leo defeats the Arab forces and reconquers most of Asia Minor.
Women in the Year 1000 C.E.
The Dyfed-Powys area of Mid Wales had the most victims of computer repair fraud where cold callers offer to fix a non-existent glitch, with reports per , people, compared with the general average of This type of fraud was more commonly reported in areas with an older population, Which? Dyfed-Powys was also a hotspot for reported fake services fraud.
A Chronology of the Middle Ages () Clovis, founder of the Frankish state, conquers most of France and Belgium, converting his territories to Western Catholic founds the Merovingian dynasty and passes his kingdom on to his sons, who begin fighting one another for additional territory.
It is the earliest and largest urban site of the period in the world. This site has yielded evidence for the earliest domestication of animals, evolution of agriculture, as well as arts and crafts. The horse was first domesticated here in B. There is a progressive process of the domestication of animals, particularly cattle, the development of agriculture, beginning with barley and then later wheat and rice, and the use of metal, beginning with copper and culminating in iron, along with the development villages and towns.
However, current archeological data do not support the existence of an Indo Aryan or European invasion into South Asia at any time in the pre or proto-historic periods David Frawley. The people in this tradition were the same basic ethnic groups as in India today, with their same basic types of languages. Two important cities were discovered: Harappa on the Ravi river, and Mohenjodaro on the Indus during excavations in The remains of these two cities were part of a large civilization and well developed ancient civilization, which is now called by historians as ‘Indus Valley Civilization’, or ‘Saraswati Civilization’.
Later Harappan Sarasvati civilization BC shows massive cities, complex agriculture and metallurgy, sophistication of arts and crafts, and precision in weights and measures. They built large buildings, which were mathematically-planned. The city planning in those ancient cities is comparable to the best of our modern cities.
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RomeTime-lapse video of Rome. Physically mutilated, economically paralyzed, politically senile, and militarily impotent by the late Middle Ages, Rome nevertheless remained a world power—as an idea. The force of Rome the lawgiver, teacher, and builder continued to radiate throughout Europe.
Scientists have discovered evidence of inhabitants dating back as far as BC, but the first major development of the city was by Roman invaders in 43 AD. In 61 AD, the British Celtic Iceni tribe led an uprising and burned it to the ground.
The roads are paved and a seawall surrounds this small island where so much takes place every day. A recently landscaped artificial beach more than makes up for the absence of a natural beach. The main street Majeedhee Magu, runs right through the island from east to west. Chaandhanee Magu on the other hand runs across from north to south. The main streets are lined with shops offering from clothes and jewelry to the latest technological items.
During the rush hour a lot of motorized vehicles can be seen. However, traffic lights and one-way roads keep the traffic at a smooth flow with the rare interruption of traffic jams.